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unidentified Entoprocta

Maria Russo Mafra Machado (2014)



Fact Sheet




Life History & Behaviour

Fossil Record


Reproduction and Development

Anatomy & Physiology


Transport, Excretion, Nervous System

Evolution & Systematics


Diversification and Classification

Biogeographic Distribution

Conservation & Threats

References & Links


Most of the Kamptoans are found in marine habitats, with only two species inhabiting fresh-water environments. The species found in Heron island Coral Reef were part of a numerous and tall colony strongly attached on the top of a piece of rock, but most of the species are found on a high diversity of substrata, including rocks, stones, shell remains, and man-made objects . Some Entoproct species have been found existing in close association with other animals, such as sponges, polychaetes, and sipunculans.  The members of the species can be named as“zooids’’ once they are mostly colonials and not totally independent individuals.

Some species of nudibranchs ("sea slugs"), turbellarian flatworms, small crustaceans and mollusks prey on Entoprocts. Some colonies exists close to the gills of flies larvae in order to disperse and protect from predators or even have a good source of oxygen and nutrients.

There is not a specific study concerning the lifespan of Entoprocts, but it is known that some larvae can live for more than 7 months.