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Protopalythoa sp.

Button Polyp Anemone

Kirsten Schmidt (2013)



Fact Sheet



Physical Description


Life History & Behaviour

Anatomy & Physiology

Evolution & Systematics

Biogeographic Distribution

Conservation & Threats



Campbell N.A., Reece J.B., Taylor M.R., Simon E.J. & Dickey J. (2009). Biology: concepts & connections. Pearson/Benjamin Cummings.

Babcock R. & Ryland J. (1990). Larval development of a tropical zoanthid (Protopalythoa sp.). Invertebrate Reproduction & Development, 17: 299-236.

Davey K. (1998). A photographic guide to seashore life of Australia. New Holland Pub., Australia. pp: 34.

Erhardt H. & Knop D. (2005). Corals: Indo-Pacific Field Guide. IKAN-Unterwasserarchiv, Germany. pp: 9-11, 14, 269.

Gosliner T.M., Behrens D.W. & Williams G.C. (1996). Coral reef animals of the Indo-Pacific: Animal life from Africa to Hawaii exclusive of the vertebrates. Sea Challengers, Monterey, USA. pp: 1-7, 66.

LaJeunesse T.C., Thornhill D.J., Cox E.F., Stanton F.G., Fitt W.K. & Schmidt G.W. (2004). High diversity and host specificity observed among symbiotic dinoflagellates in reef coral communities from Hawaii. Coral Reefs, 23: 596-603.

Mather P. & Bennett I. (1994). A Coral Reef Handbook: A guide to the geology, flora and fauna of the Great Barrier Reef. Surrey Beatty & Sons Pty Ltd, Australia. pp: 1, 47-55.

Porra R.J. (2005). The chequered history of the development and use of simultaneous equations for the accurate determination of chlorophylls a and b. In: Discoveries in Photosynthesis. Springer. pp: 633-640.

Reef Relief Headquarters & Environmental Center. (2010). Reef Hotspots. Florida, USA <>

Reft A.J. & Daly M. (2012). Morphology, distribution, and evolution of apical structure of nematocysts in Hexacorallia. Journal of Morphology, 273: 121-136.

Reimer J.D., Ono S., Takishita K., Tsukahara J. & Maruyama T. (2006) Molecular evidence suggesting species in the zoanthid genera Palythoa and Protopalythoa (Anthozoa: Hexacorallia) are congeneric. Zoological science, 23: 87-94.

Reimer J.D., Takishita K., Ono S., & Maruyama T. (2007). Diversity and evolution in the zoanthid genus Palythoa (Cnidaria: Hexacorallia) based on nuclear ITS-rDNA. Coral Reefs, 26: 399-410.

Reimer J.D., Irei Y. & Fujii T. (2012). Two new species of Neozoanthus (Cnidaria, Hexacorallia, Zoantharia) from the Pacific. ZooKeys, 246: 69-87.

Ruppert E.E., Fox R.S. & Barnes R.D. (2004). Invertebrate Zoology; a Functional Evolutionary Approach. 7th edn. Cengage Learning, Canada.

Ryland J.S. (1997). Reproduction in Zoanthidea (Anthozoa: Hexacorallia). Invertebrate Reproduction & Development, 31: 177-188.

Ryland J. & Babcock R. (1991). Annual cycle of gametogenesis and spawning in a tropical zoanthid, Protopalythoa sp.. Hydrobioloia, 216: 117-123.

Ryland J.S. & Lancaster J.E. (2003). Revision of methods for separating species of Protopalythoa (Hexacorallia: Zoanthidea) in the tropical West Pacific. Invertebrate Systematics, 17: 407-428.

Soares M.O., Rabelo E.F. & Mathews-Cascon H. (2011). Intertidal Anthozoans from the coast of Ceará, Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Biociências, 9: 437-443.


I'd firstly like to thank Bernie Degnan, Sandie Degnan and Greg Skilleter for providing us with this amazing opportunity to work on the invertebrates of the Great Barrier Reef, it's been an amazing experience.  I'd also like to thank the tutors, Andrew Calcino, Jabin Watson, Federico Gaiti and Ben Yuen for their considerable help and guidance collecting samples, gathering information and getting those awesome microscope and fluorescence images.
Thank you!