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You are here:   OldClasses > 2012 > Creseis acicula | Serena Burnett



Serena Burnett (2012)



Fact Sheet



Physical Description


Life History & Behaviour

Anatomy & Physiology

Evolution & Systematics

Biogeographic Distribution

Conservation & Threats

Glossary, References & Links


Definitions obtained directly from Wikipedia

Apomorphic: Apomorphic features are those possessed by a group of biological organisms that distinguish those organisms from others descended from the same ancestor. The term is taken from the Greek apo, ‘from’ or ‘away’, and morphe, ‘form’, and means ‘new-featured’. It refers to‘derived’ characters which have appeared during the course of evolution. Apomorphic features may be autapomorphic (uniquely derived) or synapomorphic (shared-derived). 

Bathypelagic: The region of the sea where no light penetrates; it is situated beneath the euphotic zone.The bathypelagic zone contains no algae or phytoplankton, and its inhabitants are exclusively carnivorous animals or organisms that feed on sediment or detritus, all reliant on energy inputs from the euphotic zone. It extends downwards from a depth of about 1000m, or less in turbid waters, and includes the abyssal zone.

Unicellular organism of the kingdom Protista, characterized by a silica shell of often intricate and beautiful sculpturing.

Bacteria and archaea that fix atmospheric nitrogen gas into a more usable form such as ammonia.

Unicellularorganism of the kingdom Protista. Many dinoflagellates are known to be photosynthetic, but a large fraction of these are in fact mixotrophic, combining photosynthesis with ingestion of prey. Dinoflagellates are the largest group of marine eukaryotes aside from the diatoms.

This is theilluminated zone at the surface of the sea where there is enough light forphotosynthesis. Nearly all primary production in the ocean occurs here.Consequently, plants and animals are largely concentrated in this zone.

Euthecosomatous forms:
Taxonomicunit used to classify holoplanktonic gastropod molluscs within the clade thecosomata. Retains shell throughout life cycle.

Multicellular, eukaryotic organisms of the kingdom Animalia or Metazoa. Their body plan eventually becomes fixed as they develop, although some undergo a process of metamorphosis later on in their life. Most animals are motile,meaning they can move spontaneously and independently. All animals are also heterotrophs, meaning they must ingest other organisms or their products for sustenance.

The neritic zone,also called coastal waters, the coastal ocean or the sublittoral zone,  is the part of the ocean extending from the low tide mark to the edge of the continental shelf, with a relatively shallow depth extending to about 200 meters(109 fathoms or 656 feet). The neritic zone has generally well-oxygenated water, low water pressure, and relatively stable temperature and salinity levels. These, combined with presence of light and the resulting photosynthetic life, such as phytoplankton and floating sargassum, make the neritic zone the location of the majority of sea life.

An oligotrophis an organism that can live in an environment that offers very low levels of nutrients. They may be contrasted with copiotrophs, which prefer nutritionally rich environments. Oligotrophs are characterized by slow growth, low rates of metabolism, and generally low population density.The adjective oligotrophic may be used to refer to environments that offer little to sustain life,organisms that survive in such environments, or the adaptations that support survival. Etymologically, the word "oligoptroph" is a combination of the Greek adjective oligos (ὀλίγος)meaning "few" and the adjective trophikos (τροφικός) meaning"feeding".

Pallial cavity: The mantle(also known by the Latin word pallium meaning mantle, robe orcloak, adjective pallial) is a significant part of the anatomy of molluscs:it is the dorsal body wall which covers the visceral massand usually protrudes in the form of flaps well beyond the visceral massitself. The mantle cavity is a central feature of molluscan biology.This cavity is formed by the mantle skirt, a double fold of mantle whichencloses a water space.

Phototaxis: Locomotory movement, that occurs when a whole organism moves in response to the stimulus of light. This is advantageous for phototrophic organisms as they can orient themselves most efficiently to receive light for photosynthesis. Phototaxis is called positive if the movement is in the direction of increasing light intensity and negative if the direction is opposite.

Radiolarians: Amoeboid protozoa (diameter 0.1-0.2 mm) that produce intricate mineral skeletons,typically with a central capsule dividing the cell into inner and outer portions, called endoplasm and ectoplasm. They are found as zooplankton throughout the ocean, and their skeletal remains cover large portions of the ocean bottom as radiolarian ooze.

Synapomorphic: In cladistics, a synapomorphy or synapomorphic character is a trait that is shared ("symmorphy") by two or more taxa and their most recent common ancestor, whose own ancestor in turn does not possess the trait.  A synapomorphy is thus an apomorphy visible in multiple taxa, where the trait in question originates in their last common ancestor.

Type: In biology, a type is one particular specimen (or in some cases a group of specimens) of an organismto which the scientific name of that organism is formally attached. In other words, a type is an example that serves to anchor or centralize the defining features of that particular taxon

Veliger: A veliger is the planktonic larva of many kinds of marine and freshwater gastropod molluscs, as well as most bivalve molluscs.

References & Links

            Albert S.,O’Neil J.M, Udy J.W., Ahern K.S., O’Sullivan C.M, Dennison W.C. (2004) Bloomsof the cyanobacterium Lyngbya majuscule in coastal Queensland, Australia:disparate sites, common factors. 51:428-37Alldredge A.L. & Hamner W.M. (1980) Recurring aggregation of zooplankton by a tidal current. Estuarine and Coastal MarineScience 10:31–37

Bandel K. & Hemleben C. (1995) Observations on the ontogeny of thecosomatous pteropods (holoplanktic Gastropoda) in the southern Red Sea and from Bermuda. Marine Biology 124:225-243

Bell P.R.F.,Elmetri I., Ulwins P. (1999) Nitrogen fixation by Trichodesmium spp. Inthe Central and Northern GBR lagoon: relative importance of the fixed-nitrogenload. Marine Ecology Progress Series 186:119-126

Comeau S.,Gattuso J., Nisumaa A. & OrrJ.C. (2012) Impact of aragonite saturation state changes on migratory pteropods. Proceedings of the Royal Society Biological Sciences 279:732–738

Comeau S.,Jeffree R., Teyssie´ J.-L. & Gattuso P. (2010). Response of the Arctic pteropod Limacina helicina to projected future environmental conditions. PLoSONE 5(6)

El-Sherbiny M.M., Hanfy M.H., & Aamer M.A. (2007) Monthly Variations in Abundance and Species Composition of the Epipelagic Zooplankton off Sharm El-Sheikh, Northern Red Sea. Research Journal of Environmental Sciences 1(5):200-210

Gerber R.P. & Gerber M.B. (1979) Ingestion of natural particulate organic matter and subsequent assimilation, respiration and growth by tropical lagoon zooplankton. Marine Biology 52(1):33-43

Gilmer & Harbison (1986) Morphology and field behavior of pteropod molluscs: feeding methods in the families Cavoliniidae, Limacinidae and Peraclididae (Gastropoda: Thecosomata). Marine Biology 91:47-57

Hunt B., Pakhomov E., Hosie G., Siegel V., Ward P., & Bernard K. (2008) Pteropods in Southern Ocean ecosystems. Progress in Oceanography 78:193

Klussmann-Kolb A. & Dinapoli A. (2006) Systematic position of the pelagic Thecosomata and Gymnosomata within Opisthobranchia (Mollusca, Gastropoda) – revival of the Pteropoda. Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research 44:118-129.

Kornicker L.S. (1959) Observations on the behavior of the pteropod Creseis acicula Rang. Bulletin of Marine Science of the Gulf and Caribbean. 9(3):331-336

McKinnon A.D., Richardson A.J., Burford M.A. & Furnas M.J. (2007) Chapter 6: 'Vulnerability of Great
Barrier Reef plankton to climate change'. In Climate Change and the Great Barrier Reef: A Vulnerability Assessment, eds. Johnson, J.E. and Marshall, P.A., Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority and Australian Greenhouse Office, p. 121-152.

Monge-NájeraJ. (2008) Ecological Biogeography: A review with emphasis on conservation and the neutral model. Gayana 72(1):102-112

Newman L.J. (1990) Holoplanktonic Molluscs (Gastropoda; Thecosomata; Gymnosomata and Heteropoda) from the waters of Australia and Papua New Guinea:Their taxonomy, distribution and biology. PhD Thesis University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia: 208 pp.

Parra-Flores A. & Gasca R. (2009) Distribution of pteropods (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Thecosomata) in surface waters (0-100m) of the Western Caribbean Sea (winter 2007). Revista de Biología Marina y Oceanografía 44(3):647-662

Roger L.M., Richardson A.J., McKinnon A.D., Knott B., Matear R.,& Scadding C. (2012) Comparison of the shell structure of two tropical Thecosomata (Creseis acicula and Diacavolinia longirostris) from 1963 to 2009: potential implications of declining aragonite saturation. ICES Journal of Marine Science 69(3):465-474

Sakthivel M. & Haridas P. (1974) Synchronisation in the occurrence of Trichodesmium bloom and swarming of Creseis acicula Rang (Pteropoda) and Penilia avirostris Dana (Cladocera) in the area off Cochin. Mahasagar National Institute of Oceanography 7:61-67

Singh A.D.,Nisha N.R. & Joydas T.V. (2005) Distribution patterns of recent pteropods in the surface sediments of the western continental shelf of India. Micropaleontology24:39-54

Wall-Palmer D., Hart M.B., Smart C.W., Sparks R.S. J., Le Friant A., Boudon G., Deplus C., & Komorowski J. C. (2012) Pteropods from the Caribbean Sea:variations in calcification as an indicator of past ocean carbonate saturation. Biogeosciences 9(1):309-315

Waterman T.H., Nunnemacher R.F., Chace F.A., & Clarke G.L. (1939) Diurnal vertical migrations of deep-water plankton. Biological Bulletin Marine Biology Woods Hole 76:256–279

Wells F.E. (1973) Effects of Mesh Size on Estimation of Population Densities of Tropical Euthecosomatous Pteropods. Marine Biology 20:347-350

Wells F.E. (1976) A preliminary examination of euthecosomatous pteropods off the central coast of Western Australia Rec. West Australian Museum 4(4):327-334

Wright S. &Davidson A. (2006) Ocean acidification: a newly recognized threat. Australian Antarctic Magazine 10: 26-27

Yonge C.M. (1926) Ciliary Feeding Mechanisms in the Thecosomatous Pteropods. Journal of the Linnean Society of London, Zoology36: 417–429.