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Cryptodendrum adhaesivum

Sticky Anemone



Fact Sheet



Physical Description



Life History & Behavior

Feeding Behavior


Reproduction and Development


Response to Light Changes

Anatomy & Physiology

Circulatory and Excretory Systems

Defense Mechanisms: Cnidocytes and Cnidae

Digestive System

Nervous and Sensory Systems

Skeleton and Musculature

Evolution and Systematics

Biogeographic Distribution

Conservation and Threats

References and Links

References and Links

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Erhardt, H & Knop, D 2005, Corals Indo-pacific field guide, IKAN Unterwasserarchiv, Frankfurt, Germany.

Fautin, DG 1987, 'Effects of symbionts on anthozoan body form', American Zoologist, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. A14. 

Fautin, DG & Allen, GR 1992, Field guide to anemone fishes and their host sea anemones, Western Australia Museum, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.  

Fautin, DG & Mariscal, RN 1990, 'Cnidaria (coelenterata), anthozoa' in FW Harrison & JA Westfall (eds), Microscopic anatomy of invertebratesvol. 2, Wiley-Liss, pp. 267—358.

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Glaessner, M 1984, The dawn of animal life. A biohistorical study, Cambridge, University Press, Cambridge, UK. 

Gosliner, TM, Behrens, DW & Williams, GC 1996, Coral reef animals of the Indo-Pacific, Sea Challengers, Monterey, California. 

Grasshoff, M 1984, 'Cnidarian phylogeny — a biomechanical approach', Recent advances in the paleobiology and geology of the cnidaria, palontographica americana, Paleontological Research Institution, Ithaca, New York, pp. 127—135.

Hall, DM & Pantin, CFA 1937, 'The nerve net of the actinozoa V. temperature and facilitation in Metridium senile', Journal of Experimental Biology, vol. 14, pp. 71—78.

Halstead, B 2000, Coral sea reef guide, IKAN-Unterwasserarchiv, Frankfurt, Germany. 

Holley, MC & Shelton, GAB 1984, 'Reversal of the direction of mucus-flow on the ciliated pharynx of a sea anemone', The Journal of Experimental Biology, vol. 108, pp. 151—161.

Hutchings, P, Kingsford, M & Hoegh-Guldberg, O (eds) 2008, The great barrier reef biology, environment and management, CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Victoria, Australia. 

Hyman, LH 1940, 'Chapter VII. Metazoa of the tissue grade of construction — the radiate phyla — phylum cnidaria', in The invertebrates: protozoa through ctenophora, McGraw-Hill, New York, pp. 365—661.

Maeda, M, Honma, T & Shiomi, K 2010 'Isolation and cDNA cloning of type 2 sodium channel peptide toxins from three species of sea anemones (Cryptodendrum adhaesivum, Heterodactyla hemprichii and Thalassianthus aster) belonging to the family Thalassianthidae', Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, Part B, vol. 157, no. 4, pp. 389—393.

Mariscal, RN 1974b, 'Scanning electron microscopy of the sensory surface of the tentacles of sea anemones and corals', Zeitschrift für Zellforschung und mikroskopische Anatomie, vol. 147, pp. 149—156. 

Martins, RD, Souza, AJF, Orts, DJB, Marangoni, S, deMenezes, DB & Fonteles, MC 2009, 'Purification and characterization of thebiological effects of phospholipase A(2) from sea anemone Bunodosoma caissarum, Toxicon, vol. 54, no. 4, pp. 413. 

Mather, P & Bennett, I (eds) 1993, A coral reef handbook: a guide to the geology, flora and fauna of the great barrier reef, Surrey Beatty & Sons, NSW, Australia. 

Merle, P, Sabourault, C, Richier, S, Allemand, D & Furla, P 2007, 'Catalase characterization and implication in bleaching of a symbiotic sea anemone', Free Radical Biology and Medicine, vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 236—246.

diMilia, A & Geppetti, L 1964, 'On the expansion contraction rhythm of the sea anemone, Actinia equina', Experientia, vol. 20, pp. 571—572. 

Muller-Parker, G 1984a, 'Dispersal of zooxanthellae on coral reefs by predators on cnidarians', The Biological Bulletin, vol. 167, pp. 159—167. 

Nevalainen, TJ, Peuravuori, HJ, Quinn, RJ, Llewellyn, LE, Benzie, JA, Fenner, PJ & Winkel KD 2004, 'Phospholipase A(2) in cnidaria', Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part B, pp. 731—735. 

Pantin, CFA 1960, 'Diploblastic animals', Proceedings of the Linnean Society of London, vol. 171, pp. 1—14. 

Parker, GH 1917, 'Actinian behavior', Journal of Experimental Zoology, vol. 22, pp. 193—230. 

Pearse, VB 1974 'Modification of sea anemone behavior by symbiotic zooxanthellae: expansion and contraction', Biology Bulletin, vol. 147, pp. 641—651.

Perez, SF, Cook, CB & Brooks, WR 2001, 'The role of symbiotic dinoflagellates in the temperature-induced bleaching response of the subtropical sea anemone Aiptasia pallida', Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, vol. 256, no. 1, pp. 1—14.

Robson, EA 1961a, 'A comparison of the nervous systems of two sea anemones, Calliactis parasitica and Metridium senile', Quarterly Journal of Microscopic Science, vol. 102, pp. 319—326. 

Robson, EA 1963, 'The nerve-net of a swimming anemone, Stomphia coccinea', Quarterly Journal of Microscopic Science, vol. 104, pp. 535—549.

Robson, EA 1976, 'Locomotion in sea anemones: the pedal disk' in GO Mackie (ed), Coelenterate ecology and behavior, Plenum, New York, pp. 479—490.

Robson, EA 1985, 'Speculations on coelenterates', in SC Morris, JD George, R Gibson & HM Platt (eds), The origins and relationships of lower invertebrates, Systematics Association Special Vol. No. 28, Clarendon Press, Oxford, UK, pp. 60—77. 

Ruppert, EE, Fox, RS & Barnes, RD 2004, Invertebrate zoology: a functional evolutionary approach, 7th edn, Cengage Learning, Australia. 

Schlichter, D 1973, 'Ernährungsphysiologische und ökologische aspekte der aufnahme im meerwasser gelöster aminosäuren durch Anemonia sulcata (coelenterata, anthozoa)', Oecologia, vol. 11, pp. 315—350. 

Schlichter, D 1980, 'Adaptations of cnidarians for integumentary absorption of dissolved organic matter', Reviews of Canadian Biology, vol. 39, pp. 259—282. 

Schmidt, H 1974, 'On evolution in the anthozoa', in Proceedings of the second international coral reef symposium, vol. 1, Great Barrier Reef Committee, Brisbane, pp. 533—560. 

Scrutton, CT 1979, 'Early fossil cnidarians', in MR House (ed), The origin of major invertebrate groups, Systematics Association Special Vol. No. 23, Academic Press, London, pp. 161—207. 

Sebens, KP & DeRiemer, K 1977, 'Diel cycles of expansion and contraction in coral reef anthozoans', Marine Biology, vol. 43, pp. 247—256. 

Seilacher, A 1983, 'Paleozoic sandstones in southern Jordan: trace fossils, depositional environments and biogeography', in AM Abed & HM Khaled (eds), Geology of Jordan, proceedings of first Jordanian geology conference, Jordan Geologists Association, Amman, pp. 209—222.

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Shick, JM 1991, A functional biology of sea anemones, Chapman & Hall, London. 

Shick, JM & Brown, WI 1977, 'Zooxanthellae produced O2 promotes sea anemone expansion and eliminates oxygen debt under environmental hypoxia', Journal of Experimental Zoology, vol. 201, pp. 149—155. 

Smith, HG 1939, 'The significance of the relationship between actinians and zooxanthellae', Journal of Experimental Biology, vol. 16, pp. 334—345. 

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Werner, B 1973, 'New investigations on systematics and evolution of the class scyphozoa and the phylum cnidaria', Publications of the Seto Marine Biological Laboratory, vol. 20, pp. 35—61.