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unidentified Entoprocta

Maria Russo Mafra Machado (2014)



Fact Sheet




Life History & Behaviour

Fossil Record


Reproduction and Development

Anatomy & Physiology


Transport, Excretion, Nervous System

Evolution & Systematics


Diversification and Classification

Biogeographic Distribution

Conservation & Threats

References & Links

References & Links

  • Appeltans, W., P. Bouchet, G. Boxshall, C. De Broyer, N. de Voogd, D. Gordon, B. Hoeksema, T. Horton, M. Kennedy, J. Mees, G. Poore, G. Read, S. Stöhr, T. Walter, M. Costello. 2012. "WoRMS - World Registry of Marine Species" (On-line). Accessed February 23, 2013 at
  •  Brusca, R., G. Brusca. 2003. Invertebrates (2nd Edition). Sunderland MA: Sinauer Associates.
  •  Fuchs, J., T. Iseto, M. Hirose, P. Sundberg, M. Obst. 2010. The first internal molecular phylogeny of the animal phylum Entoprocta (Kamptozoa). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 56: 370-379
  •  Helmkampf, M., I. Bruchhaus, B. Hausdorf. 2008. Phylogenomic analyses of lophophorates (brachiopods, phoronids, and bryozoans) confirm the Lophotrochozoa concept. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 275: 1927-1933.
  • Iseto, T., Yokuta, Y., Hirose, E., 2007. Seasonal change of species composition, abundance and reproduction of solitary entoprocts in Okinawa Island, the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan. Mar. Biol. 151: 2099-210.
  • Ramel, G. 2012. "The Goblet Worms (Phylum Entoprocta)" (On-line). Earthlife. Accessed April 30, 2013 at
  • Ruppert, E., R. Fox, R. Barnes. 2004. Invertebrate Zoology: A functional evolutionary approach (7th Edition). Belmont, CA: Thomson-Brooks/Cole.
  • Shanks, A. 2001. Entoprocta. Pp. 37-38 in A Shanks, ed. Identification Guide to Larval Marine Invertebrates of the Pacific Northwest. Corvallis, OR: University of Oregon Press. Accessed May 01, 2013 at
  • Sid Perkins, "ScienceShot: fossils of Enigmatic Sea Creature Emerge", ScienceNOW, January 17, 2013
  •  Wood, T.S. 2005. Loxosomatoides sirindhornae, new species, a freshwater kamptozoan from Thailand (Entoprocta). Hydrobiologia. 544: 27-31
  •  Zhang, Z., L. Holmer, C. Skovsted, G. Brock, G. Budd, D. Fu, X. Zhang, D. Shu, J. Han, J. Liu, H. Wang, A. Butler, G. Li. 2013. A sclerite-bearing stem group entoproct from the early Cambrian and its implications. Scientific Reports, 3/1066: 1-7.