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unidentified Entoprocta

Maria Russo Mafra Machado (2014)



Fact Sheet




Life History & Behaviour

Fossil Record


Reproduction and Development

Anatomy & Physiology


Transport, Excretion, Nervous System

Evolution & Systematics


Diversification and Classification

Biogeographic Distribution

Conservation & Threats

References & Links

Transport, Excretion, Nervous system

The body wall of Entoprocta consist of epidermis and an external cuticle, in the case of colonial animals this cuticle is thicker (with chitin). The nervous system in kamptozoa runs through the whole body controlled by a single large ganglion. There is no coelom, and internal organs are connected by a tissue, in which nerves runs to provide reactions and movement.
Ciliated cells runs along the sides of the tentacles creating a current that flows into the "crown" at the bases of the tentacles and exits above the center of the "crown". Some cilia collects food particles, and the inner cilia produce a current that takes particles into the mouth. In order to absorb nutrients the stomach and intestine are lined with microvilli. The current generated by the zooid transports feces far from the mouth to not contaminate the food bearing cilia.