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Cyclodius ungulatus
H. Milne Edwards, 1834

Hoof-Clawed Reef Crab

Joshua Gaschk (2014)


Fact Sheet



Physical Description


Life History & Behaviour

Anatomy & Physiology

Evolution & Systematics

Biogeographic Distribution

Conservation & Threats

References & Links

References & Links

Reference List

Abello. P., Pertierra, J.P. andReid, D.G. (1990), Sexual size dimorphism, relative growth and handedness in Liocarcinus depurator and Macropipus tuberculatus (Brachyura:Portunidae), Scient. Mar., 54(2),195-202.

Brosing, A., Richter, S. and Scholtz, G. (2007) Phylogenetic analysis of Brachyura (Crustacea, Decapoda) base on characters of the foregut with establishment of a new taxon, Journal of Zool. Syst. Evol. Res., 45(1), 20-32.

Barnard, K.H. (1950), Descriptivecatalogue of South African Decapod Crustacea (Crabs and Shrimps), Annals of the South African Museum, 38,1-837.

Chang, K.H., Chen, Y.S. and Chen,C.P. (1987), Xanthid crabs in the corals PocilloporaDamicornis and P. verrucosa ofSouthern Taiwan, Bulletin of MarineScience, 41(2), 214-220.

Clark, P.F. and Galil, B.S.(1993), A revision of the xanthid genus PilodiusDana, 1851(Crustacea: Brachyura: Xanthoidea), Journal of Natural History, 27, 1119-1206.

Edmonson, C.H. (1962) Xanthidaeof Hawaii, Occasional Papers of BerniceP. Bishop Museum, 22(13), 216-307.

Glynn, P.W., Miguel, P. andGlichrist, S.L. (1985) Lipid decline in stressed corals and their crustaceansymbionts, Biology Bulletin, 168,276-284.

Healy, J.M., Potter, D.G., Willan, R.C. & Norman, M. (2011) Wild Guide to Moreton Bay, 2ndEdition. P.J.F. Davie(ed.), Queensland Museum, Brisbane.

Jamieson, B.G.M. (1994) Phylogenyof the Brachyura with particular reference to the podotremata: evidence from areview of spermatozoal ultrastructure (Crustacea, Decapoda), Philosophical Transactions: BiologicalSciences, 345(1314), 373-393.

Kyomo, J. (1999) Feedingpatterns, habitats and food storage in Pilumnus Vespertilio (Brachyura:Xanthidae), Bulletin of Marine Science,65(2), 381-389.

Llewellyn, L.E. and Endean, R.(1988), Short communication toxic coral reef crabs from Australian waters, Toxicon, 11, 1085-1088.

Longo, M.V. and Diaz, A.O. (2013)Morphology of the claw closer muscle in two estuarine crab species (Crustacea,Varunidae): An ultrastructural study, ZoologicalSociety of Japan, 30(8), 663-669.

McDonald, J. (1982) Divergentlife history patterns in the co-occurring intertidal crabs Panopeus herbstii and Eurypanopeusdepressus (Crustacea: Brachyura: Xanthidae), Marine Ecology Progress Series, 8, 173-180.

McKeon, C.S., Stier, A.C.,McIlroy, S.E. and Bolker, B.M. (2012) Multiple defender effects: synergisticcoral defense by mutualist crustaceans, Oecologia,169, 1195-1103.

Mitchell, S.C., Kennedy, S.M.,Williams, P.J. and DeMont, M.E. (2003) Morphometrics and estimates of forcegeneration by the chelae of a North American population of the invasive greencrab Carcinus maenes (L.), Canadian Journal of Zoology, 81(2),2003-215.

Peachey, L.D. (1967) Membranesystems of crab fibers, AmericanZoologist, 7(3), 505-513.

Read, A.T. and Govind, C.K.(1993) Fine structure of identified muscle fibers and their neuromuscularsynapses in the limb close muscle of the crab Eriphia spinifrons, CellTissue Res., 271, 23-31.

Saisho, T., Noguchi, T., Koyama,K., Uzu, A., Kikuta, T., and Hashimoto, K. (1983) Examination of stomachcontents in Xanthid crabs, Bulletin ofthe Japanese Society of Scientific Fisheries, 49(6), 939-947.

Stella, J.S., Munday, P.L., andJones, G.P. (2011) Effects of coral bleaching on the obligate coral-dwellingcrabs Trapezia cymodoce, Coral Reefs, 30,719-727.

Stella, J.S., Munday, P.L.,Walker, S.P.W., Pratchett, M.S. and Jones. G.P. (2014), From cooperation tocombat: adverse effect of thermal stress in symbiotic coral-crustaceancommunity, Oecologia, 174, 1187-1195.

Swanson, B.O., George, M.N.,Anderson, P.S. and Christy, J.H. (2013) Evolutionary variation in the mechanicsof fiddler crab claws, BMC EvolutionaryBiology, 13, 137.

Taylor, G.M. (2000) Maximum forceproduction: why are crabs so strong?, TheRoyal Society, 267, 1457-1480.

Walossek, D. (1998) On theCambrian diversity of crustacean, Proceedingsof the Fourth International Crustacean Congress, 1, 1-27.

Zipser, E. and Vemeij, G.J.(1978) Crushing behaviour of tropical and temperate crabs, J. exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol., 31, 155-172.


E.Wenner, SCDNR Marine Resources Research Institute,


I would like to acknowledge Bernie and the lecturers of this course for providing background information as a platform to do my research. The tutors Jabin, Fed and Ben for taking the time and effort to help us answer our own annoying questions, going to the ends of the earth to help with our projects and the fun throughout the semester. To all the students who helped me create this page whether it was holding my crab whilst i take photos, listening to me freak out or obsess about crabs. Thanks.