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Temnopleurus alexandri (Bell, 1880)

Alexanders Sea Urchin

Monique Parisi (2014)


Fact Sheet



Physical Description


Life History & Behaviour

Anatomy & Physiology

Evolution & Systematics

Biogeographic Distribution

Conservation & Threats

References & Links

References & Links

Dupont, S., Ortega-Martinez, O. & Thorndyke, M. 2010. Impact of near-future ocean acidification on echinoderms. Ecotoxicology. 19, 449-462.


Fenner, D. H. The respiratory adaptations of the podia and amupllae of echinoids (Echinodermata). The Biological Bulletin. 145,323-339.


Flammang, P., Santos, R. & Haesaerts, D. 2005. Echinoderm adhesive secretions: from experimental characteristation to biotechnological applications. Progress in Molecular and Subcellular Biology. 199-218.


Flammang, P. 1995. ‘Adhesion in Echinoderms’, in Jangoux, M. & Lawrence, J. M. (eds.). Echinoderm Studies 5. A. A. Belkema Publishers. Brookfield, VT, USA.


Harrold, C. & Reed, D. C. 1985. Food availability, sea urchin grazing, and kelp forest community structure. Ecology. 66, 1160-1169.


Leddy, H. A. & Johnson, A. S. 2000. Walking versus breathing: mechanical differentiation of sea urchin podia corresponds to functional specialization. The biological bulletin. 198, 88-93.


Miskelly, A. 1968. Sea urchins of Australia and the IndoPacific. Capricornia Publications. Lindfield, NSW, Aus.


Moore, H. B. 1964. ‘Ecology of Echinoids’, in Boolootian, R. A. (ed.). Physiology of Echinodermata. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. New York, USA.


Nichols, D. 1961. A comparative histological study of the tube-feet of two regular echinoids. Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science. 102, 157-180.


Nichols, D. 1967. Echinoderms. Hutchinson & Co LTD, London, England.


Nichols, D. 1971. The water-vascular system in living and fossil echinoderms. Paleontology. 15, 519-538.


Pinsino, A., Thorndyke, M. C. & Matranga, V. 2007. Coelomocytes and post-traumaticresponse in the common sea star Asteriasrubens. Cell Stress and Chaperones.12, 331-341.  


Ruppert, E. E., Fox, R. S. & Barnes, R.D. 2004. Invertebrate Zoology. Brooks/Cole. Belmont, CA, USA. 7th edition.


Santos, R. & Flammang, P. 2004. Morphometry and mechanical design of tube foot stems in sea urchins: a comparative study. Journal of experimental marine biology and ecology. 315, 211-223.


Santos, R., Gorb, S., Jamar, V. & Flammang, P. 2005. Adhesion of echinoderm tube feet to rough surfaces. The Journal of Experimental Biology. 208, 2555-2567.  


Smith, A. B. 1979. Peristomial tube feet and plates of regular echinoids. Zoomorphologie. 94, 67-80.

Smith, A. B. 1988. Phylogenetic relationship, divergence times, and rates of molecular evolution for Camarodont sea urchins. Molecular Biology and Evolution. 5, 345-365.

Williamson, J. E. & Steinberg, P.D. 2002. Reproductive cycle of the sea urchin Holopneustes purpurascens (Temnopleuridae: Echinodermata). 140, 519-532.