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Thalia democratica


Brook Anderson (2013)     


Fact Sheet



Physical Description

Sexual Form

Asexual Form


Biogeographical Location

Feeding Ecology

Life History & Behaviour

Asexual Reproduction

Sexual Reproduction

Anatomy & Physiology

Sensory System

Muscular System

Feeding Structures and Function

Evolution & Systematics

Conservation & Threats

References & Links


Chaudhuri, O. & Mooney, D. J. 2012. Stem-celldifferentiation: Anchoring cell-fate cues. NatMater, 11, 568-569.

Davies, C. H. &Slotwinski, A. S. 2012. Australianzooplankton guide and taxonomic outline [Online]. Integrated MarineObserving System.  [Accessed 15 October2013].

Deibel, D. 1982.Laboratory determined mortality, fecundity and growth rates of Thaliademocratica Forskal and Dolioletta gegenbauri Uljanin (Tunicata, Thaliacea). Journal of Plankton Research, 4, 143-153.

Deibel, D. &Lowen, B. 2012. A review of the life cycles and life-history adaptations ofpelagic tunicates to environmental conditions. ICES Journal of Marine Science: Journal du Conseil, 69, 358-369.

Deibel, D. &Paffenhöfer, G.-A. 2009. Predictability of patches of neritic salps anddoliolids (Tunicata, Thaliacea). Journalof Plankton Research, 31,1571-1579.

Gibson, D. M. &Paffenhöfer, G.-A. 2002. Asexual reproduction of the doliolid, Doliolettagegenbauri Uljanin (Tunicata, Thaliacea). Journalof Plankton Research, 24,703-712.

Govindarajan, A. F.,Bucklin, A. & Madin, L. P. 2010. A molecular phylogeny of the Thaliacea. Journal of Plankton Research.

Henschke, N. 2009. Distribution and population structure of thesalp Thalia democratica in relation to water masses of the Tasman Sea.Faculty of Science, The University of New South Wales.

Henschke, N.,Everett, J. D., Baird, M. E., Taylor, M. D. & Suthers, I. M. 2011.Distribution of life history stages of the salp Thalia democratica in shelfwaters during a spring bloom. Mar. Ecol.Prog. Ser, 430, 49-62.

Henschke, N.,Everett, J. D., Doblin, M. A., Pitt, K. A., Richardson, A. J. & Suthers, I.M. 2013. Demography and interannual variability of salp swarms (Thaliademocratica). Marine Biology, 1-15.

Heron, A. C. 1972.Population ecology of a colonizing species: the pelagic tunicate Thaliademocratica. Oecologia, 10, 269-293.

Kremer, P. 2002.Towards an understanding of salp swarm dynamics. ICES publication CM2002. p.

Lacalli, T. &Holland, L. 1998. The developing dorsal ganglion of the salp Thaliademocratica, and the nature of the ancestral chordate brain. Philosophical Transactions of the RoyalSociety of London. Series B: Biological Sciences, 353, 1943-1967.

Madin, L. P. 1995.Sensory ecology of salps (Tunicata, thaliacea): More questions than answers. Marine and Freshwater Behaviour andPhysiology, 26, 175-195.

Miller, R. &Cosson, J. 1997. Timing of sperm shedding and release of aggregates in the salpThalia democratica (Urochordata: Thaliacea). Marine Biology, 129,607-614.

Paffenhöfer, G. A.& Lee, T. N. 1987. Development and persistence of patches of Thaliacea. South African Journal of Marine Science,5, 305-318.

Shibata, N.,Rouhana, L. & Agata, K. 2010. Cellular and molecular dissection ofpluripotent adult somatic stem cells in planarians. Development, Growth & Differentiation, 52, 27-41.

Sköld, H. N., Obst,M., Sköld, M. & Åkesson, B. 2009. Stem cells in asexual reproduction ofmarine invertebrates. Stem Cells inMarine Organisms. Springer.

Tew, K. S. & Lo,W.-T. 2005. Distribution of Thaliacea in SW Taiwan coastal water in 1997, withspecial reference to Doliolum denticulatum, Thalia democratica and T.orientalis. Marine Ecology ProgressSeries, 292, 181-193.

Vargas, C. A. &Madin, L. P. 2004. Zooplankton feeding ecology: clearance and ingestion ratesof the salps Thalia democratica, Cyclosalpa affinis and Salpa cylindrica onnaturally occurring particles in the Mid-Atlantic Bight. Journal of Plankton Research, 26, 827-833.